Polycystic ovarian disease/ syndrome is one of the most common endocrine conditions seen among young women. The incidence of PCOD has been increasing over the past few years. This is attributed to the changing life style habits. Intake of a high calorie diet and practicing a sedentary life style have led to an increase in prevalence of obesity and PCOD. Although obesity is seen in majority of women with PCOD, around 30% of them are non- obese. Common symptoms of PCOD include menstrual irregularities in the form of infrequent periods, unwanted hair growth (hirsutism) and having an evidence of enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts on USG. Ovaries in women with PCOD fail to ovulate and thereby not produce an important hormone called progesterone.

Hence women with PCOD experience infertility and menstrual irregularities. Ovaries in PCOD women produce more male hormone, testosterone, which causes unwanted hair growth/ hirsutism. Because majority of the women with PCOD are overweight/ obese they are also at risk for developing diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, all women with PCOD should be periodically screened for diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Treatment primarily includes a change in lifestyle with practices like diet restriction and regular exercise help in weight loss and improvement in clinical symptoms. For menstrual irregularities and hirsutism hormonal pills are the main therapy and metformin is used in those with abnormal blood glucose and in situations where hormonal medication cannot be given.